CTF (Catch the Flag) in the programming world is a competition where you hack/solve puzzles in order to get a code to get the next puzzle. You might to use several tricks and a plenty of imagination to get something like this: CTF{This_is_how_flags_usually_look_like}.

A really nice introduction to what CTF competition is LiveOverflow YouTube Channel with their pros and cons. I took the Google CTF Beginners Quest 2021, I have learned some interesting stuff so I wanted to make a post detailing some of them.

You can go and check this CFT at https://capturetheflag.withgoogle.com/beginners-quest.

Get the password for this website https://cctv-web.2021.ctfcompetition.com/, this is what it looks like. Check the inspect the html code using your favorite web browser. You get the following code:

const checkPassword = () => {
const p = Array.from(v).map(a => 0xCafe + a.charCodeAt(0));

if(p === 52037 &&
p === 52081 &&
p === 52063 &&
p === 52077 &&
p === 52077 &&
p === 52080 &&
p === 52046 &&
p === 52066 &&
p === 52085 &&
p === 52081 &&
p === 52077 &&
p === 52066) {
window.location.replace(v + ".html");
} else {
}
}



We enter the code and the program stores it inside the const v, then the code transforms the characters into integer values after adding 0xCafe. To obtain the password, we need to check what values are stored in the p[i]: Python is our friend.

import numpy as np

# Checking the code, we need at least 12 values

p = np.zeros(12)

p = 52037
p = 52081
p = 52063
p = 52077
p = 52077
p= 52080
p = 52046
p = 52066
p = 52085
p = 52081
p = 52077
p= 52066 #12 values

#Convert 0xCafe to integer value
#16 is the ASCII base, represented by '0x'
offset = int('0xCafe',16)

p -=  offset # Deletes the offset

for i in p:
print(chr(int(i)), end="")



And the password is GoodPassword, it takes you to a new page with the flag at the bottom. Date: February 28, 2022
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